This paper focuses on the human error identified as an important risk factor..This paper focuses on the human error identified as an important risk factor in the occurrence of the anesthesia-related deaths. Performing clinical root cause analysis, the common anesthesia errors and their causes classified into four major problems (i.e., breathing, drug, technical, and procedural problems) are investigated. Accordingly, a qualitative model is proposed that analyzes the influence of the potential causes of the human errors in these problems, which can lead to anesthetic deaths. Using risk measures, this model isolates these human errors, which are critical to anesthesiology for preventive and corrective actions. Also, a Markovian model is developed to quantitatively assess the influence of the human errors in the major problems and subsequently in anesthetic deaths based on 453 reports over nine month.